The Copying Rules covers:
- Higher Education
- Contract Education
- Higher Vocational Education
- Higher Education Access Programmes
- Access Programmes at Higher Education Institutions
- Internal in-service training of the higher education institution’s staff
Who is allowed to make copies
Teachers and students
Teachers and students are allowed to make copies and share copyright protected material. Copied material may only be used for education within the higher education institution (HEI). The teacher may instruct someone else to make the reproductions.
What may be copied
Swedish and non-Swedish works
Teachers and students are allowed to copy texts, images and musical notations from Swedish and non-Swedish works, e.g. from books, teaching materials, newspapers, magazines, periodicals, digital publications, websites and more.
Audio and moving images is not covered
The agreement does not cover the right to copy (record, download etc.) moving images, recorded works for example radio and TV-programmes, YouTube clips, films, audio files, recorded music, computer games and computer programmes. This requires separate agreements.
How you may copy
Analogue and digital reproduction
Teachers and students are allowed to copy works digitally and analogue and use the material for educational purposes.
Make copies for example by
- Printing out
- Reproducing for slide presentation for educational purposes, e.g. PowerPoint
- Saving copies in digital form, e.g. on the HEI's closed network, on USB
- Transferring digital copies, e.g. by mail or via the HEI's closed network
How you may share
Share digital and analogue
Copied material may be shared digitally and analogue between teachers and students in a teaching group within the HEI, e.g. by mail or via the HEI's closed network to which only the HEI's staff and students have access. The size of the teaching group may vary but is always limited to the HEI. The HEI's distance learning in Sweden is also covered by the agreement.
Share for example by
- Communicating via the HEI's closed network
- Making mailings within a teaching group
- Projecting and displaying on screen
- Distributing photocopies and printouts
How much you may copy and share
Digital – corresponding to 15 A4 pages
Teachers and students may copy and share corresponding to 15 A4 pages from one and the same digital source, e.g. from a website or other digital publication.
Photocopy and Scan – 15 % / 15 pages
You may copy and share according to the 15/15 rule from a paper original. It means that you can copy up to 15 percent of the number of pages from the same publication, but not more than 15 pages. Out of a book comprising 100 pages, you can copy up to 15 pages. Out of a book comprising 60 pages, you can copy 9 pages.
If you need to photocopy or scan one chapter or an article which comprises one or a few pages more than those mentioned in the limitation above, it is despite the limitation permitted to copy and share three additional pages, at most 18 pages from the same original.
The right to reproduce and share material under the licence is per calendar half-year. Thus, it is permitted to reproduce and share from one and the same original once per student and calendar half-year.
Number of copies per student
From a paper original, you may only make as many copies as are needed to provide one for each student and a few for the teacher himself/herself.
Teachers' reproduction for their own use
As a teacher, you may make one (1) paper copy of a book to yourself. However, you may not copy and save the book in digital form. When the copy is for your own use, you may copy the work in its entirety – without having to take into account the 15/15 rule.
How the copies may be used
In a teaching group
Copied material may be used for education in a teaching group within the HEI. The teaching group may vary but is always limited to the HEI. The HEI's distance learning in Sweden is also covered by the agreement. The copies may be saved and transferred digitally within the HEI's network to which only the HEI's staff and students have access. The copies cannot be used public on the HEI's open website or similar.
The copies may be projected, displayed on a screen or otherwise presented during teaching. Digital slide presentation can be printed out and distributed and shared digitally between teachers and students in a teaching group.
It is not permissible to copy and share certain material
Publisher-produced compulsory course literature
According to the general rule, you may not make reproductions from publisher-produced compulsory course literature. Publisher-produced compulsory course literature is literature produced by a publisher that the student must obtain for examination, or that must be studied during the course. Although three exceptions apply.
1) Compulsory course literature may be reproduced if only a minor section, not exceeding 15 pages is to be read, then the publication may be reproduced under the 15/15 rule despite that the section is specified as compulsory.
2) Single sections may be copied from publisher-produced compulsory course literature for projection during teaching.
3) Single section from publisher-produced compulsory course literature may be copied for examination task.
If the HEI has entered into other agreements
If the HEI has entered into other agreement that governs how digitally stored works may be reproduced and used, the terms of such agreement shall prevail.
If a rights holder has filed a prohibition
If a rights holder has filed a prohibition against reproduction and making available, the extended collective licence does not apply. Works covered by a prohibition may not be copied under the Higher Education Agreement.
Only rights holders that are not members of an organization representing a substantial number of authors of certain types of works which are used in Sweden within the specified field may file a prohibition according to the Copyright Act. No prohibitions have been announced regarding the HEI sector.
Choral material and single parts
Choral material and single parts that form part of an ensemble and orchestral material and that are available for hire or purchase may not be copied.
Musical work for public performance
Musical work, with or without lyrics, may not be copied for public concerts.
For a performance within the scope of the regular education programme, reproduction is permitted for the student or students and teachers who are to take part in the performance. Provided however that 15/15 rule and the other provisions of the agreement are followed.
The agreement does not confer the right to copy material for the public.
Remember to quote name and source!
Even the source from where the material was reproduced shall be shown on or in conjunction with the reproduced material.
When you need to reproduce and share more than the agreement allows
If you want to copy or share more or in any other way than is covered by the agreement, permission is required from those who own the copyright to the material.
A rights holder is everyone who owns rights to the material. For a book, it may be a matter of getting permission from one or more authors, translators, publishers, visual creators and others – they are all rights holders to the book.
If the publication is out of print
You are not allowed to reproduce without permission because a particular edition no longer is commercially available or no longer is issued.
In that case, you need permission from the author and/or the publisher before any reproduction can be made, otherwise one runs the risk making a copyright infringement.
If the licensing rules are not followed
Reproducing and sharing material in any other way than is covered by the licence is an infringement of the author's exclusive rights.